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UCSD MSF kira 面经 [2020.04.09]

[日期:2020-08-06] 来源:ChaseDream论坛 作者:宴星 [字体: ]

史上最晚 UCSD MSF 面经来了,就当攒人品吧!下一年的朋友可以参考一下。

  1. 你的 short-term goal 是啥,目标哪个 industry,具体什么 company/jobs/function?
  2. Market Sizing.一支 ball point pen 能写多远?你得出结论的过程和 assumptions.Three pieces of information which can help you get an accurate answer?
  3. (写作)Rady School of Management 有很多 Speaker Events, write an email to make further connection with a person met on the event.

祝各位申请顺利!

第一题:(45s Preparation, 1min30s Speaking)

  1. What does the year look like after you graduate from your Master's program here at the Rady School of Management in terms of your career? What companies, functions, jobs, or industries interest you the most?
  2. What do you intend to do after graduating from Master's program 3 or 4 years? What jobs, positions, functions?
  3. What does the 3-4 years look like after you graduate from your Master's program here at the Rady School of Management in terms of your career? Are there certain positions, industries, or companies that interest you?
  4. What are your short-term career goals, and what do you plan to do upon graduation here at Rady School of Management? What companies, functions, jobs, or industries interest you the most?
    基本都一样
    Personally, I’m always interested in investment activities. Upon graduation, I expect to be an equity analyst in an investment bank or a fundamental analyst in a wealth management firm. Of course, I know it can be very hard to get a job in a buy-side firm like mutual funds or hedge funds. So my plan is to try my best to join a sell-side firm like an investment bank, starting from a research associate, and then seek opportunities to manage portfolio.
    And I don’t think it’s a mission impossible to join an asset management firm upon graduation. Before graduation, I’m going to try my best to do more interns and get more experience. With proper networking and a little bit luck, it’s still possible to make it.
    To be more specific, my first priority is bulge bracket investment banks, like J.P. Morgan or Barclays. But in case that those top firms wouldn’t give me offers, for back up, I also pay attention to middle investment banks like Wells Fargo or Macquarie. At the same time, I’ll also look for similar occupations in Hong Kong. I think there will be at least one opportunities left for me.

第二题:(2min Preparation, 2min Speaking)

Market Sizing
(1)整体市场规模
(2)单店供给能力
(3)供给需求结合

  1. Estimate the money spent on shoes in your country. How about the money spend on sandals?
    First, I live in China. We have 1.4 billion people. I once read a report...
    Suppose that 800 million out of whole Chinese people are in the low income level.
    500 million have the middle level of income.
    And finally, there are about 100 million people are rich people who are above middle class.
    For poor people with low income, 80 * 0.8=64 billion RMB
    For people with middle level of income,150 * 3 * 0.5=225 billion; 300 * 6 * 0.1 = 180 billion
  2. Tell me how you would determine the number of times you could say the English alphabet in 24 hours. In doing so, please share all your assumptions with us so we can understand how you are figuring out this problem. What pieces of information do you need to find the real answer to this problem?
    Well, the first step is to figure out how much time I need to spend on saying the English alphabet for one time. AB…XYZ, it’s about 5 second I suppose. Then I assume I say the alphabet at the same speed, it means I don’t slow down or speed up. Actually, I can say it faster, or slower. But on average, we can assume that I say the alphabet at the same pace.
    60/5 = 12 times/min 12 * 60min = 720 times/hours 720 * 24 = 17280 times/day
  3. If you played your favorite song continuously for a year, how many times would it play? How did you come to this number and what assumptions are you making? What pieces of information would you need to know to come up with a more accurate answer?
    OK. To solve this problem, we need two pieces of key information. First information is how many minutes are there in a year. It is simple question, which only needs a little calculation. There are 60 min every hours, 24 hours every day. So 1440 min every day. We use that number multiplied by 365 days a year. I suppose the result is about 500,000. Second info is how long my favorite song is. My favorite is Hotel California, by Eagles. It is a long song about 7 min. So we use the result 500 thousand, divided by 7 min, the final result is about 70,000 times every year.
    Of course, it’s just an estimated number, I guess it’s smaller than the real number. If I have a paper or a calculator to calculate exact number of minutes in a year, and then check the exact length the song, the result will be much more accurate.
  4. How many keys do you think are owned by people in your country? How many of these keys are used on a daily basis? As you come up with the answer to this question, please share with us your assumptions. Also, please share the three pieces of information you would need to know to get a much more accurate answer?
    First, according to their purpose, we can roughly divide keys as door keys, vehicle keys, case or drawer keys. Here I assume that a standard Chinese family has three people. So it’s about 430 million houses. Assume 4 doors in a house, corresponding to about 8 keys, including spare keys. 430*8 = 3.5 billion keys.
    Then, vehicle keys. Here I assume every family has 2 vehicles. Some vehicle has a spare key. So it can be assumed that every family has 4 keys for vehicle purpose, which means there are about 1.7 billion vehicle keys. Finally, case and drawer keys. It is hard to tell how many cases in a family, we can roughly estimate its number, it should be close to the amount of vehicle keys, which is 1.7 billion.
    As a result, the number of all sort of keys totals as 3.5+1.7+1.7=7 billion keys. According to my experience, more than half keys are spare keys, so about 3.5 billion keys are used on daily basis.
    Of course, the result is just an estimated number. To be more accurate, we need the exact number of family in China, per family housing stock and vehicle number in the country.
  5. 你的 hometown 每天扔多少饮料瓶,有多少塑料瓶?多少玻璃瓶?你的假设是怎么来的?哪三个信息能让你更准确的估计?
    Because most of bottled drinks are finished and thrown away in a single day, let’s assume that daily consumption of bottled drinks in my hometown Nanjing is the daily amount of discarded drink bottles. Nanjing has about 8 million people. Let’s assume there are 30 percent of old people and little children who barely consume bottled drinks. As a result, there are about 5.6 million people in Nanjing who have bottled drinks regularly.
    Sometimes people don’t buy any bottled drinks for days, but other times they just drink a lot in a single day. I think it’s fair to assume an individual consumes 1 bottle of drink every two days, which is 0.5 bottle per capita per day. So I suppose there are 2.8 million bottles discarded in Nanjing.
    Due to the higher cost of glass bottle, I assume 60 percent of bottles are made by plastic, while 20 percent are glass bottles, which means we use 1.5 million plastic bottles and about half million glass bottles every day.
    To make the result more accurate, I need the exact population, accurate proportion of old people and little children, at the same time, I must know the proportion of glass and plastic bottles sold in my city everyday.
  6. 圆珠笔能写多远?
    First, we need to figure out the volume of a single ballpoint pen. Assume the length of the ink in a pen refill is 8 centimeters, which is 80 millimeters. And the inner diameter of the refill is 4 millimeters. With these data, we can calculate the volume of ink. The result should be 4pi times 80 mm, which is 320pi. We know pi is approximately 3, so the ink volume should be around 960 milliliters.
    Assume this pen has the standard 0.5 mm ballpoint, and thickness of the trace is 0.002 mm, this pen uses 0.5 * 0.002 * 1000 = 1ml per meter. So this pen can write for 960 meters.
    To be more accurate, I need the exact size and volume of some type of pen refill. More importantly, the exact number of ink consumption per meter writing.
  7. 数到 1 Million 要多久?
    The answer of this question completely depends on how fast the counting is. The problem we must notice is counting speed will become slower as the number increases, because the number will become longer and longer.
    The longest number is 9 hundred and ninety nine thousand 9 hundred and ninety nine, it costs about 3 seconds to count.
    The smallest number like one two three four, they are extremely fast to pronounce, but the amount of small numbers are just so limited that we can ignore them.
    After a thousand, time consumption suddenly changes. For example, if we count 1 thousand 1 hundred and eleven, it spends us more than 1 second to pronounce.
    I think it’s fair to assume it cost about 2 seconds on average to read every number.
    So we need 2 million sec to count to 1 million if we just don’t stop and keep counting at the same speed.
  8. How many pieces of popcorn does it need to be filled in the cinema? 有多少是 unpoped 的?
    Assume the cinema measures 20 meters long, 20 meters width and 10 meters high, then its volume is 4000 cubic meters.
    Then we need to figure out how much space a single piece of popcorn takes up. It seems very complicated because the shape of the popcorn is irregular. But it simply the piece of popcorn as a small ball with the diameter of 2 centimeters, according to sphere volume formula, the vol of a single piece is about 4/3piR3, in which the radius is 1 centimeter, pi is about 3, the single piece volume should be 4 cubic centimeters.
    It must be considered that popcorns cannot fill the space densely, so assume the space utilization is 70%, then the total volume of all popcorns is 2,800 cubic meters. As a result, we need 2800*106/4= 700 million pieces of popcorns to fill this cinema.
    Assume unpopped rate is 2%, there are about 14 million unpopped pieces. Of course, it is just a rough number. To have more accurate result, we need the exact volume of the cinema, the inner space of a cinema is not rectangular. We also need to test the space utilization rate of popcorns.
  9. 人一辈子要睡多长时间的觉?
    To simplify this problem, assume people sleep for 8 hours a day. Then we spend one third of time everyday on sleeping. Assume average lifespan of human being is 75 years. After a simple calculation, we know about 25 years are spent on sleeping.
    That is a simple estimation. To make our guess more accurate, we need to more information about this person. For example, which country is he from? In developed country, people’s average lifespan is longer than that in undeveloped country.
    What’s more, the average sleeping time varies in different stage of life. Generally speaking, the older people are, the less they sleep. Here I assume in the first ten years, people spend 10 hours out of 24 on sleeping, so that’s 4 years. From 10 to 50 years, they spend 8 hours on sleeping, so that’s 13 years. From 50 to 75, 6 hours out of 24 are used for sleep, so that’s about 6 years. As a total, people sleep for 23 years during their whole life.
  10. 25 kg 大米有多少粒米?(1435000 粒)
    思路:类比(水)
    Assume the average volume of a single grain of rice is V, the total volume of 25 kg is V.
    According to common sense, rice cannot float on water, so its density must be greater than water. We know the density of the water is 1kg / liter. Assume the density of rice is 1.2 kg, then 25 kg of rice has a volume of about 25/1.2= more than 20 liters. Because there is space between grains, the actual volume of rice should be smaller, here I just assume the volume is 20 liters.
    Then we calculate the volume of a single grain. Assume every grain is a small cuboid that measures 4 millimeters long, 2 mm high and 2 mm wide. The volume should be 16 cubic millimeters, or 16 * 10-6 liter.
    OK, now we have V = 20 liters, and Vsingle = 16 * 10-6 liter. So the number of grain should be 20/16 * 106, which is 1.25 million grains.
    Of course, it is just an estimated number. To more accurate, we can simply weigh 5 grams of rice and count the exact grain number, then times 5000 as the final result.
  11. 假设从地球走路走到月球是可行的,需要几年时间?给出 assumption,以及什么 information 可以让结果 more accurate?
    I can still remember from my physic class, the distance between earth and moon is 370,000 kilometers, I’m not sure if it’s accurate, but I’m sure we can find out the accurate number on the internet very easily. Now I just use this number, 370,000 kilometers.
    Assume a person can walk for 4 kilometers per hour, and Obviously, people can’t keep walking without any rest, so assume this person walks for 10 hours every day. In this way, he walks for 40 kilometers every day. Assume this man is so tough and diligent that he never has a rest day, he just keep walking every day, then he’ll need 370,000/40= 9000 days, which is about 26 years I guess.
    Of course, it’s just an estimated number, to make it more accurate, first we need to search on the internet the exact distance between earth and moon, then if the person is me, I need to figure out the exact distance I can walk every hour. With these two numbers, I can calculate a better result.
  12. 海洋里有多少条鱼?
    I’ll estimate the result based on annual fish consumption.
    I once read an article saying Chinese consume 20 kg fish per capita per year. Because China is vast country with different eating habits, I assume this number can represent an average annually per capita consumption for the entire world. We know there are roughly 7 billion people on earth, corresponding to 140 billion kg fish consumption.
    But not all consumed fish are ocean fish, here I assume half of fish are from ocean, as a result, there will be 70 billion kg ocean fish consumed every year.
    Assume average weight of single fish is 0.2 kg, there should be 350 billion fish consumed annually.
    Suppose 10 percent of ocean fish is consumed by human being per year. Then total number of ocean fish should be 3.5 trillion.
    It is just a very rough estimation, to be more accurate, I need the reliable statistics about annual consumption of fish in the world, the proportion of ocean fish consumed and the proportion of annual amount of fishing to total amount of ocean fish.
  13. Estimate the number of 10 years old in your country.
    The total population of China is 1.4 billion. As far as I know, forty years ago, China was a high birth rate country, but now in 2020, we have low birth rate problem. Generally speaking, in high-birth-rate country, the birth rate can be as high as 3 to 4 percent, on contrast, current birth rate can be just 1 percent.
    So let’s assume the birth rate ten years ago was 2%, that means there were 28 million people born in China ten years ago.
    But obviously, not all babies can survive for 10 years until now, there must be some babies failing to make it. Some of them died of disease, some of them died from accidents or crime. I cannot you an exact number, but now China’s healthcare system is pretty mature, so only a little proportion of population die unnaturally every year. So I just assume only 5 percent of babies born ten years ago died due to some reasons, that is 1.4 million. So now there are about 26.6 million ten years old people in China.
  14. 此时此刻有多少飞机在头顶飞?
    I lived in a large city in China called Nanjing. It has 8 million people in the city. I once read an article about Shanghai, it says Shanghai airports have a passenger throughput of 4 times of its population. I decide to apply that ratio to Nanjing airport, which means there should be about 32 million annual passenger throughput in Nanjing, which is about 90 thousand passengers daily.
    Assume a plane can hold 150 people, then there are 90000/150 = 600 planes everyday. Assume 500 of them fly in the daytime, which 6 am to midnight, then there 500/18 = 28 planes per hour. But you know once a plane takes off, it’ll leave the sky of this city very soon, in other words, it is not above my head anymore. Assume a plane stay in the sky of city for 15 min, then there will be about 7 planes flying above my head.
  15. 此时此刻有多少 automobile 在公路上跑?How many people worldwide are in automobiles at any given time?
    I’ve lived and studied in both China and America, so I roughly remember the amount of automobile holdings in China is 260 million, that number for USA is about the same. Obviously, China’s population is much larger than USA. For China, automobile to population rate is about one sixth, while rate of US is 70 percent.
    We know that China is a developing country, and US is a highly developed country. So I assume automobile holding rate in developing country is about one sixth, in developed countries the number is 0.7, and in some poor countries, the rate should be a tenth.
    Next step to estimate the population of three types of countries. I think it’s fair to assume about 10 billion people living in rich countries, 50 billion lived in developing countries, while the rest 10 billion lived in very poor conditions.
    So total amount of automobiles is 10 * 0.7 + 50 * 1/6 + 10 * 0.1 = 7+8+1 = 16 billion.
    Not all car are driven on road every day because of some reasons, so I assume there are about 80 percent of cars driven at any given day, which about 13 billion automobiles.
    Because we have 24 different time zones, when it’s night in some time zone, it can be morning in other time zone, so there are always lots of automobiles moving on the earth. At any given hour, we have 13 divided by 24, which is 500 million automobiles moving on the earth.
  16. How many taxi cabs are there in the largest city in your home country? How many are currently being driven and how many are not? 也是提出assumption, what pieces of information would you need to know to come up with a more accurate answer.
    The largest city in China is Shanghai, the population of Shanghai is about 22 million. Assume people aged over 10 and below 70 years old have the ability to regularly travel and commute, they account for 80% of population, which is about 18 million people.
    Then, assume 60% of people travel by bus or metro, 40% of travelling people will choose cars, that’s 7 million people. I can vaguely remember the car stock in Shanghai is about 4 million, most of them drive their own cars, but sometimes they take other passengers. Assume 4 million private cars provide transportation for 6.5 million people, that means about 500 thousand people need to take taxi. But it’s possible for them to travel at the same time.
    If there are 10% of people take the taxi at the same time, which is 50,000 people, assume a taxi takes two people every time, there should be 25,000 taxi in Shanghai running on the road. We some taxi drivers work in the day while some work in night, so roughly we can estimate there are 50,000 taxi cabs in Shanghai.
    To get a more accurate result, I think I need the exact number of daily travelling in Shanghai and the proportion of travelling people who choose taxi.
  17. How you would determine how many loaves of bread are consumed in a single day around the world? How did you come to this number and what assumptions are you making? What pieces of information would you need to know to come up with a more accurate answer?

写作:(10min)

  1. 写一封邮件向 admission team 推荐你的 colleague 或 friend. / Write a email to recommend your friend or colleague to the Admission team. / The decision to join the Rady MFin program is one that will forever become a part of your identity as a future alumnus of the School. Our graduates are great recruiters because they have been through the MFin program and know what it takes to be successful.Imagine that you are a Rady alumnus, and write an email to the Admissions team recommending a colleague or friend to the MFin program.
    Dear Admission Officer:
    I am writing to offer my sincere endorsement of my friend Cathy Li’s application for admission to your prestigious MFin Program. As one of my best friends and a trustworthy colleague, Cathy has continued convincing me of her exceptional promise in the future with intellectual gifts, drive to achieve as well as professional potentials.
    I first got to know Cathy from four years ago while I was leading a team project of one of most challenging courses in our discipline. I was deeply impressed by her modeling ability and strong conscientiousness, which providing me with strong support so that the project was successfully completed three weeks ahead of schedule.
    After graduation, I was honored to become her colleague, working closely with her in at least three major projects. Besides those qualities I’ve been familiar with, Cathy also showed her extraordinary sense to numbers in the course of dealing with complicated equations and calculations. At the same time, her interpersonal skills and moderate personality always helped to resolve conflicts and unify team members.
    Following her long-term interest in finance, Cathy is now fully prepared to pursue the career success in the world of finance. As her friend and colleague, I strongly recommend that you carefully consider the application of this talented lady, and firmly believe that she will make a great difference to your program.
    Sincerely yours,
    Beichen Deng
  2. 写一封信给在读的研究生/学院,询问对 Rady 学校的一些问题 / Write an email to a recent graduate...然后提问你想知道的问题。
    Dear Rady Alumnus / Admission Officer at Finance Department:
    Good Morning!
    I am Beichen Deng, currently applying for MFin program of Rady School of Management. Although I’ve done some research about Rady, but there are still some unsolved questions that need answers from experts. I think an experienced alumnus like you must know much more about this program than I do, so I’m writing this letter to sincerely ask for some advice.
    My first question is about curriculum. I know there will be a lot of obligatory courses which are aimed to prepare students for various financial situations. However, I’m particularly interested in investment management, I don’t know whether there are enough elective courses related to investment strategy and fundamental research so that I can prepare myself for my future career in the investment industry.
    Second, the capstone project. I’m curious about the quality of the capstone project provided by Rady: are students fully involved in real-world practice? Do they participate in core business of firms and closely cooperate with experienced professionals? How do you like the capstone project personally?
    Finally, are there enough opportunities left for international students in San Diego or neighboring cities in California? Personally, how do you evaluate the employment rate of the program?
    Looking forward to your reply,
    Sincerely,
    Beichen Deng
  3. You have participated in a Rady speaker event. Please write a letter to make further communication with the speaker. 遇到的同学、校友、或 local business leader 发邮件约谈话(or 保持联系)/Rady 会邀请很多 speaker 来演讲,会有很多 student 和 alumni 来听,请写邮件邀请一位你在 speaking event 里面遇到的人参加社交活动 / 在 Rady School 社交很重要,给一位你上星期刚认识的、有共同爱好的新朋友写邮件,约他一起出来参加社交活动。
    Hello Cathy,
    Good Morning! I am Beichen. I guess you still remember the guy sitting next to you at the speaking event last Friday. We had a great discussion after the speaker deliver the speech on the topic about the investment risk control. Your professional experience in wealth management firm provided me with a brand new perspective to better understand the address the speak gave.
    I was very glad that you were willing to share your experience with me. And I was particularly impressed by your humorous and concise way of explaining complex ideas. After the event, I carefully read two articles related to four different risk control tools. I noticed some of them were slightly different from your opinion, I think you might be curious about it.
    It’s shown on the official website that there will be another speaker event related to investment research held in the auditorium this Wednesday. I’d like to invite you to attend this event, and further discuss about the topic, if it’s convenient for you.
    Best regards,
    Beichen Deng
  4. It’s important to be able to describe complex ideas in simple terms. Think about a complex problem you worked on recently. Please write an email describing this problem to a colleague / acquaintance who doesn’t have a technical or quantitative background. Be sure to describe the original issue and goal, your approach, the tools used, the solution and/or outcome, and what you learned.
    Dear Cathy,
    I am working on an engineering project related to the design of utility tunnel.
    As you know, in every city countless pipelines are buried underground for electricity or draining purpose. Years by years, the amount of pipelines will increase to an unimaginable level so that it becomes extremely costly to manage or maintain.
    A good method to solve this problem is to arrange different types of pipelines in the same tunnel, which is spacious enough to accommodate workers and vehicles as well, so that pipes can be easily maintained. This tunnel is called utility tunnel, which is what I’m designing now.
    According to the electricity or draining demand provided by clients, I can calculate the size of the tunnel, then the inner layout will be designed based on design rules and engineering experience. Most of the process is completed using engineering design software.
    Now the project is nearly finished. It might sound easy but actually extremely complicated and time consuming. However, I am glad to be responsible for this project. I’ve acquired plenty of professional experience as well as tons of software and interpersonal skills, more importantly, I find myself more patient and endurable, and more confident in front of unknown problems.
    I hope this email can help you get a clear picture about what I’m working on.
    Best wishes,
    Beichen
  5. Rady 的学生都要跟老师多 make connections. 请写一封邮件给你一个 professor, 请求见一面讨论一个 course related problem. Hi, Professor Jackson!
    I’m Beichen. Last Friday, we had a discussion about how to recognize the falsification of financial statements after the lecture. Your concise explanation greatly helped me better understand details about financial statements and find out hidden information in it.
    I was very glad that you were willing to share your valuable experience and opinion with me. And I was particularly interested in the real-world case of that famous firm, whose annual audit had once been carried out by your team. After the event, I carefully read a book about financial statement analysis. I noticed some of opinions were very different from yours, and that posed me some new questions.
    I’d planned to consult about these questions after next lecture, but I realize I must discuss these problems in the assignment of another course, which has to be finished this week. So would you mind having a short meeting with me any time this week?
    Looking forward to your reply.
    Best regards,
    Beichen Deng
  6. Reaching out to build a network within the Rady community is an important part of the MFin job search. Our alumni are comfortable getting request for coffee chats from current students, and very willing to help others and give back to the Rady community. Write an email to a Rady alumnus whom you have never met asking for a brief meeting over coffee.
    Hi! Mr. Jackson (hypothetical name of the alumnus),
    Good Morning! I am Beichen Deng, just starting my study in the MFin program of Rady School of Management, and going to seek opportunities in investment industry after graduation, but the whole industry is still full of the unknown for me.
    Being a fund manager is my major career goal. However, the low demand and high standard for new employees in those top funds slightly worries me. In order to be better prepared, I really need to consult professional alumni about several questions: What courses are most important for investment career? As an alumnus of Rady, how to make myself more competitive in finance industry?
    I read your profile on Linkedin and was deeply impressed by your successful professional experience in two top mutual funds in NYC and Boston, from analyst to director of investment department. Then I noticed you are a Rady alumnus, too. I believe an outstanding alumnus like you must have tons of experience to share.
    Would you be willing to have a coffee chat with me this or next week? I’m completely fine with any time as long as it’s convenient for you. I’d really appreciate your help.
    Sincerely,
    Beichen Deng

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原文引自:
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