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港中深 会计 ACC 面经 [2020.01.17]

[日期:2020-03-19] 来源:ChaseDream论坛 作者:Kamille.K [字体: ]

0 offer选手报个面经积攒人品。12月中旬中介申的各种项目除了拒信什么都没有,12月17自己补申的港中深会计,1.12接到面试通知,1.17中午面试,现在还没有结果。

邮件里会有ZOOM的下载地址,用电话号码登录,我是11:30面试,11:25进入视频。我是自己开启摄像头,呼入视频。对面是一个男老师和一个女老师,都很年轻,很友好和善。笑着看着我懵逼地操作软件。

简历面:

  1. 自我介绍
  2. 我作死地提到了想成为会计方面的专业人士,然后女老师问我们官网上有两个方向:专业会计和会计分析,你想选择专业会计方向吗?当时没听懂,后来反映了过来。
  3. 介绍实习(我又没听清是哪个实习,然后说了自己很水的实习)

专业面:

  1. 现金流量表的三个部分
  2. 经营现金流和net profit的区别?(我学得太渣了,没答明白)
  3. 折旧的定义
  4. 固定资产计提折旧的方法

case 面:

准备了一大堆一个都没考,说题目的时候我没怎么听懂,只听到plastic, agree 感觉应该是支不支持对塑料制品的限制。

Q&A

  1. 问项目会招多少人:70左右
  2. 问现在已经录取了多少:这个不能告诉你
  3. 问项目的学生一般都去哪工作:事务所、投行都有,你可以关注公众号,上面有我们项目的就业信息
  4. 在深圳找工作容易吗:看个人
  5. 什么时候会有结果:录取一般在一个月之内,拒信在三个月之内(我看其他问这个问题的都只说录取时间,告诉我拒信时间是不是对我不满意?)

11:55结束的。总体来说听力很重要,准备的专业面和case面都没考到。附上之前总结的问题和答案吧!我水平不行别笑我嘻嘻!

BG

  • 华中985,会计学87,
  • 7(6),680,
  • 俩实习,没有突出的地方所以现在还没有消息吧。

========================

case

PART3

1、我的case大概内容是美团、饿了么等外卖app近几年发展迅速,其收入从xxx翻倍了多少,但是profit利润不增反而下降。
提问:1.分析这个的原因 2.怎么给外卖app增加利润 3.一家接外卖单的餐饮店会因外卖产生哪些好/坏影响。

  1. 他们在占领市场、扩大规模的时候,给出了很多优惠政策,打折很多,所以它赚的越多,亏得越多。
  2. 美团应该严控成本,在合理范围内减少补贴。在养成商家对外卖的依赖性后,对商家收取佣金。在APP上刊登广告,像淘宝一样,收取广告费,在页面上放商家的图片。
  3. 好处是销售量会增加,因为越来越多的人通过APP订餐,可以得到很远距离的客户。
  4. 坏处是外卖平台抽取佣金,却没达到宣传的效果,最终入不敷出。
  5. When they occupied the market and expanded the scale, they offered a lot of preferential policies and discounts, so the more they made, the more they lost.
  6. Meituan should strictly control costs and reduce subsidies within a reasonable range. After the formation of a merchant's dependence on selling, a commission is charged to the merchant. Place ads on the APP, like taobao, for a fee, and put pictures of the merchants on the page.
  7. The advantage is that the sales volume will increase, because more and more people order food through APP and can get customers from a long distance.
  8. The disadvantage is that the takeout platform takes commissions, but fails to achieve the effect of publicity, and ends up spending more than it earns.

2、面试官读案例,给两分钟思考后作答
我被问的是:(前面背景介绍了很多,但因为老师语速较快以及网络有点卡顿听得不是很清楚,就只听清了问题orz)给深圳市政府提建议,如何发展深圳旅游业,回答中要求提到你建议的两项投资,如何实现旅游业和经济增长,投资投入和回报如何。
Give Suggestions to the shenzhen municipal government on how to develop the tourism industry in shenzhen.这部分我认为只要条理清晰即可(楼主回答得比较糟糕就不举例了)

  1. 在深圳设立像韩国和香港一样的免税店,游客们去韩国和香港旅游都想买化妆品,因为他们更加便宜。如果深圳也能成立类似的自贸区免税店,会吸引很多海内外游客。
  2. 建立靠海的度假村,投资养老旅游项目。老人们的资金充裕,孩子们也有想让老人享福的想法。
  3. Set up duty-free shops in shenzhen like Korea and Hong Kong, where tourists want to buy cosmetics because they are cheaper. If a similar free trade zone can be set up in shenzhen, it will attract a lot of tourists from home and abroad.it needs more opening degree and reasonable policies.It concerns foreign trade.
  4. Build a resort by the sea and invest in old-age tourism projects. The old people have plenty of money, and the children want to make the old people happy.

3、关于共享单车的发展建议Suggestions on the development of bike-sharing/共享单车 marketing strategy
这几年,共享单车因为高损耗,混乱的运营和资金链的断裂,行业进行了重新洗牌,只剩下几家头部企业来瓜分市场。我能想到三种建议来维持共享单车的发展。
通过涨价来提高变现能力。前几年,共享单车损耗高,运营成本高,资金投入规模大,资本回报遥遥无期。要想弥补亏损,维持现金流,涨价是必经的道路。政府也对共享单车的管理和摆放提出了要求,要想覆盖运营成本,共享单车的单次收入必须增加。
运用数据分析,调整单车的投放战略。摒弃以前生产大规模单车进行投放的战略,公司应该使用数据,将有限的单车投放到人口密度大的地区,提升单车周转率,实现投放数量、骑行需求和停放管理的动态平衡和效率最大化。
改善技术,使用新型材料。在生产环节减少成本,用精细化经营促进良性发展。
In recent years, due to high consumption, chaotic operation and broken capital chain, bike-sharing industry has been reshuffled, leaving only a few leading companies to share the market.I can think of three Suggestions to sustain the development of bike-sharing.

  1. Increase the price to improve the liquidity. In the past few years, the consumption of Shared bikes was high, the operation cost was high, the scale of capital investment was large, and the return on capital was far away.
    To cover losses and maintain cash flow, price increases are the only way.
    The government has also put forward requirements for the management and placement of Shared bikes, whose single revenue must increase to cover operating costs.
  2. Use data analysis to adjust the launching strategy of bicycles. Instead of the previous strategy of mass production of bicycles, the company should use data to put limited bicycles into areas with high population density, improve the cycle rate of bicycles, and achieve the dynamic balance and efficiency maximization of the quantity of bicycles, riding demand and parking management.
  3. Improved technology and use of new materials. Reduce the cost in the production link, promote benign development with fine management.

4、电子竞技能不能加入奥运会,为什么?Can e-sports join the Olympics and why?
我对电子竞技不是很了解,但我认为它是不能加入奥运会的,原因有三。 1. 它和传统体育的要求相违背。我们办奥运会追求更高、更快、更强,是对人体能力的考验。而电子竞技比的是脑力和手速等等,围棋象棋等考验脑力的都没有纳入奥运会,为什么电子竞技会因为一时的热度加入呢? 2. 电子游戏更新换代很快。不像其他体育活动,百年来能延续一套规则,随着电子游戏公司的不断开发,好玩的游戏会不断更新。大概没有哪个游戏能够持续火四年以上,而且挑选哪一类游戏作为比赛平台也是一个无法做到公平的事情。 3. 电子游戏公司不一定会配合奥委会。全世界那么多电子游戏公司,他们对游戏有所有权和修改权,怎样设计一个游戏对全世界选手都公平呢?这也涉及使用权的问题。
因此,比起纳入奥运会,我更倾向于办专业的职业联赛,这已经是很刺激的事情了。

I don't know much about esports, but I don't think it can be included in the Olympics for three reasons.

  1. It goes against the requirements of traditional sports. It is a test of the ability of the human body to hold the Olympic Games higher, faster and stronger.
    And electronic sports is more than the brain and hand speed and so on, go chess and other mental tests are not included in the Olympic Games, why will electronic sports because of the heat to join?

  2. Video games are updated quickly.
    Unlike other sports, which have a set of rules that last a hundred years, playful games are constantly updated as video game companies evolve.
    Probably no game will last more than four years, and it's not fair to pick which games to play on.

  3. Video game companies may not cooperate with the ioc. With so many video game companies all over the world, they have the right to own and modify the game, how can a game be designed to be fair to players all over the world? It's also about access.
    Therefore, I prefer to run a professional professional league rather than the Olympic Games, which is already very exciting.

5、如果你是一位投资者,你是否会选择投资家族企业?优缺点各是什么?/如果你是一个投资人,你会投资一个family-owned firm吗,为什么 我不会投资家族企业。原因有三:

  1. 家族企业通常既有所有权又有管理权。两种权利不分离,通常内部控制不到位,做出决策不独立。
  2. 家族企业不会让投资人拥有控制权或者重大影响权利,因此投资的收入比较被动。
  3. 家族企业会有纠纷,会增加投资的风险。

I wouldn't invest in a family business. There are three reasons for:

  1. Family businesses usually have both ownership and management rights. The two kinds of rights are not separated, usually the internal control is not in place, the decision-making is not independent.
  2. Family businesses do not allow investors to have control or significantly influence the right, so the investment income is relatively passive.
  3. Family businesses can have disputes and increase the risk of investment.
    The upside is employee loyalty and the decision can be carried out quickly.

6、先是一段背景,然后问的问题是你觉得holding international events的costs和benefits有哪些 你认为这是一个good idea/bad idea
在 host country 举办一个international sports events,例如奥运会的cost和benefit,是不是一个good idea。
前面听的不是很清楚,问题大概是is it a good idea for the host city/country to hold an international sports event? 举办奥运会对于城市是不是一个 good idea?
我认为是一个好主意:

  1. 提升城市的知名度,有利于国家的战略规划。有利于外贸和经济发展
  2. 提高市民的凝聚力和文明程度,改善城市的环境
  3. 虽然有花费,但是会带动城市旅游业和商业的发展。

I think it's a good idea:

  1. To improve the visibility of the city is conducive to national strategic planning. Conducive to foreign trade and economic development
  2. Enhance the cohesion and civilization of citizens and improve the environment of the city
  3. Despite the cost, it will boost the city's tourism and business.

7、我当时遇到的问题是一个CEO来深圳考察,你会推荐他投资什么产业?建议大家听完case之后一定一定要核实清楚具体问题。The problem I encountered at that time was that a CEO came to shenzhen for investigation. What industry would you recommend him to invest in?
我会推荐他投资高科技产业。我国现在注重发展高科技,希望拥有自己的技术,设立科创板并试点注册制。
政府希望越来越多的科创企业能够开发出新的技术,能够有资金维持经营。 在投资高科技企业时,一定要注意。它应该具有核心技术,而不是假冒的。 注重产业的发展前景和国家的政策。

I would recommend him to invest in the high-tech industry. China is now paying attention to the development of high technology, hope to have their own technology, set up science and innovation board and pilot registration system.
The government hopes that more and more science and innovation enterprises will be able to develop new technologies and have the funds to keep operating. When investing in high-tech enterprises, pay attention. It should have core technology, not fake.
Pay attention to the development prospect of industry and national policy.

8、移动支付的优缺点Advantages and disadvantages of mobile payment
现在移动支付非常普遍,即便在我家这个小城镇,菜市场、出租车和商场也都挂上了二维码,我所在学校的城市武汉是无纸币城市。首先它的优点显而易见。

  1. 移动支付真的十分方便,出门不用带纸币,不用找零钱,几分几毛手机支付很迅速。出门不用带公交卡,地铁卡,这些东西通常会被我搞丢,一个手机就可以出去任何地方。
  2. 它让盗窃和造假币行为大大减少,也就是说小偷越来越难做了。我们不会携带大量现金出门,可以在手机上设置复杂的密保问题,即使手机被偷了,手机里的钱也取不出来。
  3. 然而它也有一些坏处。我们花钱越来越不假思索。因为货币只是一种数字,当我们用纸币花两千块钱时,它是厚厚的一沓,而在手机上只是一串数字,没有什么感觉。而且我们还会用花呗等预先支付,攒钱变得难了。
  4. 在移动支付时代,我们的命都是手机给的,如果手机没电了,还没有带纸币,真的是寸步难行了。

Nowadays, mobile payment is very common. Even in my small town, food markets, taxis and shopping malls all have qr codes. Wuhan, where I study, is a city without paper money.
First of all, its advantages are obvious.

  1. mobile payment is really very convenient, go out without notes, do not need to change, a few minutes a few cents mobile phone payment is very fast.
    I don't have to take a bus pass or a metro card, which I usually lose. I can go anywhere with a phone.
  2. It has greatly reduced thefts and counterfeiting, which means it is becoming more and more difficult for thieves. We don't carry a lot of cash with us, and we can set up a complicated security problem on our phones so that even if the phone is stolen, we can't get the money out.
  3. However, it also has some disadvantages.
    We spend money more and more mindlessly.
    Because money is just a number, when we spend two thousand dollars with paper money, it is a thick stack, but on the phone is just a string of Numbers, no feeling.
    And we also use flowers to pay in advance, making it harder to save money.
    In the era of mobile payment, our lives are given by the mobile phone, if the phone is out of power, have not taken the money, it is really difficult to move.

9、地铁扩建能不能解决交通问题Can the subway expansion solve the traffic problem
地铁扩建能缓解交通问题但是不能完全解决。我认为交通堵塞来源于城市中日益增加的人口和汽车拥有量。减少城市交通堵塞应该减少道路上的汽车行驶量。

  1. 扩建地铁可以将道路上的压力转移到地面下,一定程度上减少汽车行驶量
  2. 人们开车的需求仍然存在,比如自驾游、工作需要等。有时候不方便用地铁出行
  3. 解决交通问题还需要城市道路的规划和新型停车场的建立和一些限行的规定。比如立体停车等

Subway expansion can alleviate traffic problems but cannot solve them completely. I think the traffic jam comes from the increasing population and car ownership in the city. Reducing traffic jams in cities should reduce the number of cars on the roads.

  1. Expanding the subway can transfer the pressure on the road to the ground and reduce the number of cars driving to some extent
  2. There is still a need for people to drive, such as self-driving travel and work. Sometimes it's not convenient to travel by subway Solving the traffic problem also requires the planning of urban roads and the establishment of new parking lots and some restrictions. Such as stereo parking and so on

10、如果在深圳开奶茶店,选择自有品牌还是知名品牌?为什么?要怎么做可以让自己的店outstanding
If you open a milk tea shop in shenzhen, choose private brand or well-known brand? Why is that? How can we make our store outstanding
我会选择知名品牌,我认为奶茶是一种跟风形式的营销。比如喜茶,一点点。他们背后有资金支持,有连锁店的经营范本。自己开的奶茶店客流量很少。

  1. 颜值一定要高。奶茶店的门面装修要有特色,奶茶要有特点,比如茶杯要好看,因为现在的年轻人都爱拍照,可以加一些奶油,让照片更好看。
  2. 开在年轻人聚集的地方,比如商圈和学校附近
  3. 物以稀为贵,尽量去开刚刚兴起的品牌,这样会有很多人排队购买。

I will choose well-known brands, I think milk tea is a form of follow the trend of marketing. Like tea, a little bit. They have money behind them, and model stores. Oneself open milk tea shop customer flow is very small.

  1. the level of appearance must be high. The front of the milk tea shop should be decorated with characteristics, milk tea should have characteristics, such as the cup should be good-looking, because now the young people love to take photos, you can add some cream, let the photos look better.
  2. Drive near places where young people gather, such as business districts and schools
  3. Things to rare for expensive, try to open the emerging brand, so there will be a lot of people line up to buy.

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专业面

1、杜邦分析法/如何对比两家公司财务情况How to compare the financial situation of the two companies
聊了各种财务指标financial target
继续发问 如果指标一样再比什么
各个指标之前的关系

杜邦分析法利用几种主要的财务比率之间的关系来综合地分析企业的财务状况,这种分析方法最早由美国杜邦公司使用,故名杜邦分析法。杜邦分析法是一种用来评价公司盈利能力和股东权益回报水平,从财务角度评价企业绩效的一种经典方法。其基本思想是将企业净资产收益率逐级分解为多项财务比率乘积,这样有助于深入分析比较企业经营业绩。
是将净资产收益率(Rate of Return on Common Stockholders' Equity, ROE)分解为三部分进行分析的方式名称:利润率,总资产周转率和财务杠杆。这种方式也被称作“杜邦分析法”。
杜邦分析法说明净资产收益率受三类因素影响:

  • 净利润率,用销售净利润率衡量,表明企业的盈利能力;
  • 总资产周转率,用资产周转率衡量,表明企业的营运能力;
  • 财务杠杆,用权益乘数衡量,表明企业的资本结构。

净资产收益率ROE=销售净利润率(净利润/销售收入)资产周转率(销售收入/总资产)权益乘数(总资产/净资产(权益))=ROA*equity multiplier=net profit/sales(Reflects the level of revenue from sales) * sales/total asset(Reflects the turnover rate of total assets) * total asset/equity Represents the debt level of the enterprise

净收益(net income) 总权益(total equity) 资产收益率(ROA, return on asset) 权益乘数(equity multiplier) 销售收入(sales)

  1. 净资产收益率是一个综合性最强的财务分析指标,是杜邦分析系统的核心。
  2. 资产净利率是影响权益净利率的最重要的指标,具有很强的综合性,而资产净利率又取决于销售净利率和总资产周转率的高低。总资产周转率是反映总资产的周转速度。对资产周转率的分析,需要对影响资产周转的各因素进行分析,以判明影响公司资产周转的主要问题在哪里。销售净利率反映销售收入的收益水平。扩大销售收入,降低成本费用是提高企业销售利润率的根本途径,而扩大销售,同时也是提高资产周转率的必要条件和途径。
  3. 权益乘数表示企业的负债程度,反映了公司利用财务杠杆进行经营活动的程度。资产负债率高,权益乘数就大,这说明公司负债程度高,公司会有较多的杠杆利益,但风险也高;反之,资产负债率低,权益乘数就小,这说明公司负债程度低,公司会有较少的杠杆利益,但相应所承担的风险也低。

从企业绩效评价的角度来看,杜邦分析法只包括财务方面的信息,不能全面反映企业的实力,有很大的局限性,在实际运用中需要加以注意,必须结合企业的其他信息加以分析。主要表现在:

  1. 对短期财务结果过分重视,有可能助长公司管理层的短期行为,忽略企业长期的价值创造。
  2. 财务指标反映的是企业过去的经营业绩,衡量工业时代的企业能够满足要求。但在目前的信息时代,顾客、供应商、雇员、技术创新等因素对企业经营业绩的影响越来越大,而杜邦分析法在这些方面是无能为力的。
  3. 在目前的市场环境中,企业的无形知识资产对提高企业长期竞争力至关重要,杜邦分析法却不能解决无形资产的估值问题。

2、美国经济与中国经济比较 A comparison between the U.S. economy and China's
美国的主要产业是服务业;而中国的主要产业是制造业。中国第一、第二产业比重大,第三产业比重小,且中国高新技术少,美国第三产业比重大,与中国相反,且高新技术多。America's main industry is services; China's main industry is manufacturing. China's primary and secondary industries are more important, while the tertiary industry accounts for less. China's tertiary industry is less high-tech.

3、国有企业与私有企业比较Comparison between state-owned enterprises and private enterprises

  1. 民营企业是民间私人投资、民间私人经营、民间私人享受投资收益、民间私人承担经营风险的法人经济实体。Private enterprises are legal entities with private investment, private operation, private enjoyment of investment returns and private assumption of operational risks.
  2. 国有企业由政府投资参与控制的企业。政府的意志和利益决定了国有企业的行为。其营利性体现为追求国有资产的保值和增值。其公益性体现为国有企业的设立通常是为了实现国家调节经济的目标,起着调和国民经济各个方面发展的作用。

State-owned enterprises that are invested and controlled by the government. The will and interests of the government determine the behavior of state-owned enterprises. Its profit is reflected in the pursuit of the preservation and appreciation of state-owned assets. Its commonweal sex manifests for the establishment of state-owned enterprise is to achieve the goal that the country adjusts economy normally, playing the role that mediates development of each respect of national economy.

4、需求定律principle of demand
需求原理:在其他条件不变的情况下,某种商品的需求量与价格成反方向变化,即商品的价格越低,需求量越大;商品的价格越高,需求量越小。 Other things being equal, the demand for a commodity changes in the opposite direction from the price. The higher the price, the smaller the demand. 

5、向一个风险接受程度低的客户推荐理财产品Recommend wealth management products to a client with low risk acceptance 如果风险接受程度低,我推荐基金If risk acceptance is low, I recommend funds, high margin banking products. 基金定投(automatic investment plan (AIP))基金定投是定期定额投资基金的简称,是指在固定的时间(如每月8日)以固定的金额(如500元)投资到指定的开放式基金中,类似于银行的零存整取方式。基金定期定额投资具有类似长期储蓄的特点,能积少成多,平摊投资成本,降低整体风险Reduce overall risk。它有自动逢低加码,逢高减码的功能,无论市场价格如何变化总能获得一个比较低的平均成本, 因此定期定额投资可抹平基金净值的高峰和低谷,消除市场的波动性。

6、三大会计报表的勾稽关系:The articulation of the three major accounting statements

会计报表项目之间基本勾稽关系包括:资产=负债+所有者权益;收入-费用=利润;现金流入-现金流出=现金净流量Assets = liabilities + owners' equity; Revenue - expenses = profit; Cash inflow - cash outflow = net cash flow;资产负债表、利润表及现金流量表分别与其附表、附注、补充资料等相互勾稽等。在会计报表基本勾稽关系中,前三项勾稽关系,分别是资产负债表、利润表及现金流量表的基本平衡关系,一般没有问题。但是从调查程序上还是应予以必要的关注。勾稽关系是指会计帐簿和报表中有关指标、数字之间存在着必然的、可据以进行相互查考、核对的关系。注意勾稽关系,有利于保证会计资料的准确性。

7、现金流量表编制方法(直接法间接法解释+简单举例即可)Preparation method of cash flow statement (direct and indirect interpretation + simple examples)

现金流量表的编制方法有直接法和间接法这两种。直接法直接确定每笔涉及现金收支业务的属性,归入按现金流动属性分类形成经营、投资、筹资三部分的现金收支项目。二者的现金流入流出净额合计就得到一个单位整个期间的现金净流量。The preparation method of cash flow statement has direct method and indirect method. The direct method directly determines the attributes of each transaction involving cash receipt and payment business, which are classified into cash receipt and payment items in three parts: operation, investment and financing. The combined net cash inflows and outflows give the net cash flow of a unit for the entire period.

间接法是将直接法下的经营现金流量单独拿出来,以企业当期的净利润为起点根据不同的调整项目倒推出当期的经营活动现金净流量。The indirect method is to take out the operating cash flow under the direct method separately, and to take the net profit of the enterprise as the starting point according to different adjustment items to roll out the net operating cash flow of the current period.

8、企业自由现金流free cash flow的计算方法The calculation method of enterprise free cash flow
企业自由现金流量=息税前利润加折旧-所得税-资本性支出-营运资本净增加
Free cash flow = ebitda plus depreciation - income tax - capital expenditure - net increase in working capital

9、发债或发股对公司利润表的影响有什么不同?What is the difference between the impact of issuing debt or equity on a company's income statement?

10、你如何理解权责发生制(accrual basic)/你如何理解权责发生制(accrual basic)?accounting adjustment Accrual Basis is a system.It is based on whether the expenses and income incurred during the accounting period should be recorded into the profits and losses of the current period
. Under the accrual method, companies do have some discretion as to when income and expenses are recognized, but there are rules governing the recognition.

11、CAPM 模型/股权资金成本:DGM模型/CAPM模型/WACC 以及CAPM 的计算以及意义

其中,rf(Risk free rate),是无风险回报率,纯粹的货币时间价值;

  • βa是证券的Beta系数,
  • 是市场期望回报率 (Expected Market Return),
  • 是股票市场溢价 (Equity Market Premium).
  • CAPM公式中的右边第一个是无风险收益率,比较典型的无风险回报率是10年期的美国政府债券。如果股票投资者需要承受额外的风险,那么他将需要在无风险回报率的基础上多获得相应的溢价。那么,股票市场溢价(equity market premium)就等于市场期望回报率减去无风险回报率。证券风险溢价就是股票市场溢价和一个β系数的乘积。

加权平均资本成本(Weighted Average Cost of Capital,WACC)的计算方法包含所有资金来源,包括普通股、优先股、债券及所有长期债务。计算方法为每种资本的成本乘以占总资本的比重,然后将各种资本得出的数目加起来。
公式:WACC=(E/V)×Re+(D/V)×Rd×(1-Tc)
其中,Re = 股本成本,是投资者的必要收益率;Rd = 债务成本;
E = 公司股本的市场价值;D = 公司债务的市场价值;V = E + D 是公司的市场价值;
E/V = 股本占融资总额的百分比,资本化比率;D/V = 债务占融资总额的百分比,资产负债率。
Tc = 企业税率

12、NPV.-net present value
Net present value (NPV) of a project represents the change in a company's net worth/equity that would result from acceptance of the project over its life. It equals the present value of the project net cash inflows minus the initial investment outlay. It is one of the most reliable techniques used in capital budgeting because it is based on the discounted cash flow approach.

13、IRR定义解释,区别。(capital budget)
The internal rate of return (IRR) is a metric used in capital budgeting to estimate the profitability of potential investments. The internal rate of return is a discount rate that makes the net present value (NPV) of all cash flows from a particular project equal to zero.

14、长期股权投资/成本法/权益法Long-term equity/cost/equity 首先,核算的长期股权投资的对象不同。成本法核算对被投资单位实施控制的长期股权投资,权益法核算对被投资单位施加共同控制或重大影响的长期股权投资。
其次,初始确认不同。对于权益法核算的长期股权投资,相关税费计入成本,而对于成本法核算的长期股权投资该项计入当期损益。对于权益法核算的长期股权投资,初始投资成本小于享有的被投资单位净资产公允价值的差额,计入营业外收入,同时调整长期股权投资的初始投资成本。而对于成本法核算的长期股权投资,其合并成本与享有的被投资单位净资产公允价值的部分差值在合并财务报表中确认,合并成本大于享有的被投资单位净资产公允价值的部分确认为商誉,反之则为营业外收入。
再次,后续计量的不同。对于权益法核算的长期股权投资,被投资单位实现净利润和其他所有者权益变动时,投资方应该按其持股比例同时确认投资收益(需要按取得投资时点的公允价值持续计算,并消除内部交易未实现损益)和其他所有者权益变动。而对于成本法核算的长期股权投资,只有在被投资单位宣告发放现金股利时才按收取的现金股利确认投资收益。

15、套期保值hedging/套利方法(两个交易,分别为买方和卖方,时间、空间和品种套利)偏金融
套期保值的方法很多,卖出套期保值和买入套期保值是其基本方法。
卖出套期保值
卖出套期保值是为了防止现货价格在交割时下跌的风险而先在期货市场卖出与现货数量相当的合约所进行的交易方式。
买入套期保值
买入套期保值是指交易者先在期货市场买入期货,以便将来在现货市场买进现货时不致因价格上涨而给自己造成经济损失的一种套期保值方式。这种用期货市场的盈利对冲现货市场亏损的做法,可以将远期价格固定在预计的水平上。买入套期保值是需要现货商品而又担心价格上涨的投资者常用的保值方法。

  1. 交易方向相反原则;
  2. 商品种类相同原则;
  3. 商品数量相等原则;
  4. 月份相同或相近原则。
  5. The principle of opposite trading directions;
  6. The principle of the same type of goods;
  7. The principle of equal quantity of goods;
  8. Same or similar month principle.

16、什么情况需要编制合并报表?/什么情况需要编制合并报表?合并报表,哪些应该抵减?为什么要抵减?
初始取得长期股权投资时需编制合并财务报表,在之后的每一个资产负债表日进行调整和抵消。母子公司权益,投资收益和内部交易需抵消。合并后做为一个整体核算,内部交易要抵消,内部交易在一个集团内就相当于内设机构之间的转移,所以在整体核算抵消The initial acquisition of a long-term equity investment requires the preparation of consolidated financial statements, which are adjusted and offset at each subsequent balance sheet date. The equity of the parent company, investment income and internal transactions shall be offset. After the merger as a whole accounting, internal transactions to offset, internal transactions in a group is equivalent to the transfer between institutions, so in the overall accounting offset

17、关联方related parties.
关联交易(Connected transaction)就是企业关联方之间的交易,关联交易是公司运作中经常出现的而又易于发生不公平结果的交易。关联交易在市场经济条件下广为存在,从有利的方面讲,交易双方因存在关联关系,可以节约大量商业谈判等方面的交易成本,并可 运用行政的力量保证商业合同的优先执行,从而提高交易效率。从不利的方面讲,由于关联交易方可以运用行政力量撮合交易的进行,从而有可能使交易的价格、方式等在非竞争的条件下出现不公正情况,形成对股东或部分股东权益的侵犯,也易导致债权人利益受到损害。
Companies often seek to secure business deals with parties with whom they are familiar or have a common interest. Although these types of transactions are legal, they potentially could create a conflict of interest, or lead to another situation that is illegal. So sometimes related-party transactions must be approved by management consensus or the company’s board of directors.

18、审计关联交易时应该注意什么?What should we pay attention to when auditing related party transactions?

  1. 购销价格反常、售后短期内又重新购回、低价售给无需经手的中间企业、货款久拖不还、货款未清又赊欠等购销业务。
  2. 资金拆借低于或高于市场利率、借给不具备偿债能力的企业、逾期不还等资金融通业务。
  3. 劳务、咨询、管理费价格不合理,对不存在或无法实现的咨询服务付费等费用支出业务。
  4. 反常的投资收益、利息收入、租金收入。这些都不能合理解释或者不具有合理的商业理由,一般都伴随着管理层舞弊、侵占公司财产、虚构交易、利益输送、粉饰业绩等目的。
  5. Abnormal purchase and sales prices, re-purchase within a short period of after-sales service, low-price sales to intermediary enterprises that do not need to be handled, payment for goods is not repaid for a long time, payment for goods is not clear and credit is owed, etc.
  6. Capital borrowing is lower or higher than the market interest rate, lending to enterprises that are unable to repay the debt, overdue non-repayment and other financing businesses.
  7. Service, consultation and management fees are unreasonable, and fees are paid for services that do not exist or cannot be realized.
  8. Abnormal investment returns, interest income and rental income. These cannot be reasonably explained or have no reasonable business reasons, generally accompanied by management fraud, embezzlement of company property, fictitious transactions, benefit transfer, performance whitewash and other purposes.

19、统计学 statistics:多元线性回归 t检验

20、拉格朗日最优化

21、IFRS国际会计准则和中国会计准则的区别?
中国会计准则要求,对于固定资产、无形资产等长期资产的减值,一经提取,不得转回。
中国会计准则明确要求,仅仅同受国家控制而不存在其他关联方关系的企业,不构成关联方。对于投资性房地产,中国新会计准则规定,只在有确凿证据表明投资性房地产的公允价值能够持续可靠取得时,可以采用公允价值模式计量。
同一控制下的企业合并,中国会计准则要求采用权益法核算。
此外,国际准则中对于某些会计事项存在允许的备选方法,而中国新准则一般不允许这类选择,主要包括:
固定资产和无形资产:在符合一定条件时,国际准则允许采用重估价模式。而中国准则只允许成本模式。
借款费用:国际准则中基准处理方法为将所有借款费用计入当期损益,而资本化为允许选用的方法。而中国准则要求采用资本化的方法。
合营企业:国际准则可选择采用比例合并法或权益法核算对共同控制实体的权益。而中国准则要求采用权益法。

22、overhead 具体指什么
Overhead refers to the ongoing business expenses not directly attributed to creating a product or service. It is important for budgeting purposes but also for determining how much a company must charge for its products or services to make a profit. In short, overhead is any expense incurred to support the business while not being directly related to a specific product or service. Depending on the nature of the business, other categories may be appropriate, such as research overhead, maintenance overhead, manufacturing overhead, or transportation overhead.

23、Goodwill商誉
Goodwill is an intangible asset associated with the purchase of one company by another. Specifically, goodwill is recorded in a situation in which the purchase price is higher than the sum of the fair value of all identifiable tangible and intangible assets purchased in the acquisition and the liabilities assumed in the process. The value of a company’s brand name, solid customer base, good customer relations, good employee relations, and any patents or proprietary technology represent some examples of goodwill.

24、解释 accounting 中的 net cash flow 和 financial management中的 free cash flow 的区别。
Firms with long-term positive cash flows are financially healthy and meet their short-term obligations without the need to liquidate their assets. Conversely, companies with long-term low or negative cash flows are financially weak or even on the verge of bankruptcy.
Short-term negative cash flows may also indicate that the company has invested in the construction of a second factory or in expensive new equipment. As soon as the investment begins to generate revenue, it will outweigh the failing of short-term weak cash flow. Free cash flow (FCF) represents the cash a company generates after accounting for cash outflows to support operations and maintain its capital assets. Unlike earnings or net income, free cash flow is a measure of profitability that excludes the non-cash expenses of the income statement and includes spending on equipment and assets as well as changes in working capital from the balance sheet.

25、管理会计定价方法。

26、速动比率,自己想一个其它财务指标并解释
速动比率=速动资产/流动负债
其中:速动资产=流动资产-存货
或:速动资产=流动资产-存货-预付账款-待摊费用
计算速动比率时,流动资产中扣除存货,是因为存货在流动资产中变现速度较慢,有些存货可能滞销,无法变现。

传统经验认为,速动比率维持在1:1较为正常,它表明企业的每1元流动负债就有1元易于变现的流动资产来抵偿,短期偿债能力有可靠的保证。速动比率过低,企业的短期偿债风险较大,速动比率过高,企业在速动资产上占用资金过多,会增加企业投资的机会成本。但以上评判标准并不是绝对的。实际工作中,应考虑到企业的行业性质。例如商品零售行业,由于采用大量现金销售,几乎没有应收账款,速动比率大大低于1,也是合理的。相反,有些企业虽然速动比率大于1,但速动资产中大部份是应收账款,并不代表企业的偿债能力强,因为应收账款能否收回具有很大的不确定性。所以,在评价速动比率时,还应分析应收账款的质量。
流动比率、速动比率的分析不能独立于流动资产周转能力的分析之外,存货、应收账款的周转效率低下也会影响流动比率的分析实用性,所以上述两指标的应用应结合流动项目的构成和各流动资产的效率综合分析。

27、流动比率是什么,多少才是正常的
流动比率也称营运资金比率(Working Capital Ratio)或真实比率(Real Ratio),是指企业流动资产与流动负债的比率Is refers to the enterprise current assets and current liabilities ratio。流动比率和速动比率都是反映企业短期偿债能力的指标。
一般说来,这两个比率越高,说明企业资产的变现能力越强,短期偿债能力亦越强;反之则弱。一般认为流动比率应在2:1以上,速动比率应在1:1以上。流动比率2:1,表示流动资产是流动负债的两倍,即使流动资产有一半在短期内不能变现,也能保证全部的流动负债得到偿还;速动比率1:1,表示现金等具有即时变现能力的速动资产与流动负债相等,可以随时偿付全部流动负债。当然,不同行业经营情况不同,其流动比率和速动比率的正常标准会有所不同。应当说明的是,这两个比率并非越高越好。流动比率过高,即流动资产相对于流动负债太多,可能是存货积压,也可能是持有现金太多,或者两者兼而有之;速动比率过高,即速动资产相对于流动负债太多,说明现金持有太多。企业的存货积压,说明企业经营不善,存货可能存在问题;现金持有太多,说明企业不擅理财,资金利用效率低下。

28、筹资是通过债券市场还是股权融资

29、存货周转率 是不是越小越好 是不是所有的企业都如此
库存周转率是在某一时间段内库存货物周转的次数。是反映库存周转快慢程度的指标。周转率越大表明销售情况越好。在物料保质期及资金允许的条件下,可以适当增加其库存控制目标天数,以保证合理的库存。反之,则可以适当减少其库存控制目标天数。
存货周转率=产品销售成本/平均存货成本*100%
平均存货成本=(期初存货+期末存货)/2
存货周转率越大说明销售好,但是有时太大,对企业也有不利,回款不及时,产品供不应求及库存短缺,资金周转不灵等,理想比值应该是1:1
对于库存周转率,没有绝对的评价标准,通常是同行业相互比较,或与企业内部的其他期间相比拟分析。库存绩效评价与分析,库存周转率是着重评价的内容。

30、递延所得税资产、负债

31、应收帐款

--------------------------------------

原文引自:
https://forum.chasedream.com/thread-1360168-1-1.html

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