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GMAT Basic Grammar

[日期:2016-07-12] 来源:ChaseDream论坛 作者:juicywelson [字体: ]

句子结构及其完整性

  1. 逗号的使用:
    ? Comma alone can't connect 2 independent sentences 单个逗号不可以连接两个独立的句子,必须有连词connecting words
    ? 逗号后面的And后必须是有主语的完整句子: Tom walked to school, and later ate his lunch. 这种说法错误。 必须改成Tom walked to school and ate his lunch或者Tom walked to school, and he ate his lunch.
  2. Semicolon分号的使用:
    ? 分号连接的两个句子要有相对独立性,不一定要有连词,且每个句子必须是完整的句子。Tom and Lisa were inseparable; doing everything together. 错误,改成they do everything together.
    ? 同时在使用分号的时候要保证两个句子是相对独立的,如果作者一开始意图不是独立的,不能用分号;The dam has created dead zones, where fish have disappeared. 这里不可以改成The dam has created dead zone; fish have disappeared. 割裂了句子。
    ? 但是,在分词用来 分割很多有逗号的并列形式时,分割的部分是可以不单独成句的。如OG里的题目,Tropical bats play important roles in the rain forest ecosystem, aiding in the dispersal of cashew, date, and fig seeds; pollinating banana, breadfruit, and mango trees; and indirectly helping to produce tequila by pollinating agave plants.
  3. Colon冒号,在冒号之前的句子必须可以单独成一个句子,各个结构完整.此外要紧挨着要解释的词语
    ? I love listening to : Classical, R&B and so on. 错误,应该改成I love listening to many kinds of music: Classical, R&B, and so on.
  4. Even though等连词,后面要跟完整的句子。
  5. Because, While,although等状语从句,后面必须有一个完整的句子做主句。只有单独一个从句是不可以的。
  6. Although/Though 后面可以跟形容词或分词结构,不一定要完整句子。The two men, though not trained as pilots, were able to land the plane safely.
  7. Thereby/Thus等原因状语,后面也不用跟完整句子,可以跟现在分词,表示前面整个句子的结果。
  8. Then/Also/therefore/however等副词不可以代替连词的作用,特别留意then, do A and then do B.
  9. The reason is 后面要跟that, 不可以跟because;
  10. 宾语从句,同位语从句后面的that都不可以省略。
  11. 两个句子并列且主语相同,后一个句子的主语必须省略。Tom go to school and he plays basketball. 这里的he必须省略。
  12. While + 主谓宾, and 加主谓宾,这不合适,因为and两边需要连接两个主句,而左边仅仅只是一个从句,要么需要把and给去掉。

Subject-Verb Agreement主谓一致

  1. 主语和谓语要搭配,要分辨清楚主语和谓语,经常的错误点就是以一个物为主语,人的某个动作为谓语。
  2. 主语和谓语在单数复数上要一致;
  3. GMAT经常利用其它的词语来迷惑和隐藏真正的主语,例如介词短语,定语从句,过去分词和现在分词等。
  4. 除了And,其它的Additive Words附加性短语例如along with, together with, as well as, in addition to... be accompanied by..except, besides, more than, less than等,都是按照主语的单复数来看,附加性短语不起作用。
  5. 就近原则:Either Or... Neither Nor..Not only but also... A or B... A but B...等采取就近原则。
  6. Collective Nouns集合名词如people, army, audience, team, media 等,都是复数。
  7. 不定代词如everyone, anyone都是单数;Not one总是表示单数。
  8. SANAM:Some, any, none, all, most 都是可单数也可复数,取决于of后面的名词;但是any和none即使of后面名词是复数,也有可能表示单数的意思;
  9. 主语从句是单数
  10. Fragments,Rates这些都是复数形式,而不是意思上的单数形式;意思上的单数形式仅仅限于学科等专有名词。
  11. Each与后面的their是不搭的; Verb Tense 动词时态
  12. 不可以无根据的改变原句的时态。不同时态的动词是可以并列的,只要有足够的逻辑顺序。
  13. 进行时的禁用情形:Progressive tense
    a. 在表示定义或一般性定理的时候,用一般现在时,不要用现在进行时。Lam's radiation is the light that particles are emitting they're traveling faster than the effective light. 这里改成emits 和 travels.
    b. 不要用现在进行时表示即将发生的事情,这一点与以前学的不一样,要特别记忆。Tom is meeting me tomorrow. 这里要改成will meet
    c. Know & Signify 不可以用现在进行时
  14. Present perfect tense 现在完成时,表明过去的动作或动作的效果一直持续到现在,如果不在持续到现在,则必须要用一般过去时.
    a. The child has drawn a square in the sand。这是正确的,因为square还存在,但是如果后面加一句but the Ocean has erased it. 就不对了。We lived in the house for 3 years 与 We have lived in the house for 3 years的语义是不同的
    b. 时间状语如果既包括过去,也包括现在,则要用现在完成时,比如since, within, during, in, over + the last/past 5 years. 但是如果只包括某个时间点,则不能使用,如in 2006. Originally 也是过去时的标志。
    c. 状语从句when表示at the same time 或者after两个意思,为了使表达意思更明确,可以用现在完成时表明after的意思She will pay you when you have helped her.
  15. Past Perfect Tense过去完成时 只有在你需要强调两个动作先后顺序时采用。 而如By 1945, the US had been at war for several years也是对的。
  16. The possibility/likelihood that…后面要用一般将来时
  17. Common procedure, the most common reasons这些出现common的,一般现在时。
  18. By 1999, 这里要用过去完成时。
  19. 不同时态是可以并列的:
    As measured by the commerce department, corporate profits peaked in the fourth quarter of 1988 and have slipped since then.

Verb Voice动词语态

  1. 主动语态和被动语态都可以的情况下,倾向于主动语态。二者的句子重心与强调的内容是不同的,不要轻易改变原句的句子重心。
  2. 除了be动词,get等词不可以引导被动语态,get caught 是错的;
  3. by后面只能跟动作的实施者,而不能跟某种方式或手段,要用through/because of代替。 The pizza was accidentally eaten by a quirk of fate. 这里by 要改成though;
  4. 同理,动作的实施者只能用by,不可以用through, because of, according to等。

Verb Mood动词语气

Subjunctive Mood 虚拟语气
Unlike or Unreal conditions 长伴随if, as if, as though引导的条件从句。一般过去时,be动词只能用were.

  1. If... Then...结构
    ? If Tom eats pizza , then he becomes ill. If Tom eats pizza tomorrow, then he will become ill.两句类似,表示百分百会发生。
    ? If Tom eats pizza tomorrow, then he may become ill.
    ? If Tom ate pizza tomorrow, then he would become ill. 作者认为Tom不可能明天吃pizza,所以用了虚拟语气。(好像表达与未来相反,可以用if sb. should do sth, double check)
    ? If Tom had eaten pizza yesterday, then he would have become ill. 这件事根本没有发生。
    ? If 后面的从句里不可以出现should 或者 would,这个只能出现在主句里。
  2. Command Subjunctive命令虚拟语气,通常结构是bossy words + that + subjective + do
    ? That 千万不能省略,且that在动作执行者之前;
    ? do/be前面不可以加should; 这个在OG里明确说了, redundant.
    ? Want不是bossy words,不可以使用这种结构;
    ? 只能用命令虚拟语气的词:demand, dictate, insist, mandate, propose, recommend, request, stipulate, suggest
    ? 只能用不定式的词:advise, allow, forbid, want, persuade, rule
    ? I want to persuade you to advise him to forbid allowing the rule.
    ? 既可以用虚拟语气也可以用不定式的词: ask, beg, intend, order, prefer, urge, require
    ? 变形:His demand that.... It is essential that... 但是whether 后面不可以有这种虚拟
    ? Suggest做暗示词义的时候不能用虚拟
    语气的强弱:所选的答案要保持原句语气的强弱,不能随意更改。如only if不能被if替换,however much不能被however替换,should 和if, be not unlike和is like, if 和on condition that, just like和like.
  3. On condition that.. 如果,只要,一般用法与if一样,但是也可以用虚拟语气,should 省略,动词原形:
    Several senior officers spoke to the press on condition that they not be named in the story.

分词和不定式

分词短语在句首,一般作为状语出现,逻辑主语是整个句子的主语;
1. The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists’ assuming that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.
? Doing做伴随状语,逻辑主语永远是整个句子的主语而不是紧挨着它的宾语。而根据句意,这里有很多小眼形容的应该是compound insect eye,而不是the intricate structure, 因此可以用 with hundreds of miniature eyes;
? Sb’s assuming that…这里的assuming 显然没有assumption好。

现在分词放在句尾,有两种功能:
? 表示伴随,状态,功能,与句子的谓语动词同时发生,逻辑主语等于句子主语;
? 表示伴随的结果,整个句子是原因,导致分词动作产生,常与thus, thereby 等原因状语同时出现;

定语从句和分词
? 现在分词的完成时状态,不可以作为定语出现, 即having been doing不能放在名词后作修饰语,要改成who have been doing…
? 定语从句表示具体的时间,具体的行为以及动作的一次性;
? 分词短语强调笼统的,不确定的,抽象的,重复性的行为;
? 有情态动词的定语从句也不能改成分词形式;
? 分词短语比定语从句更简洁,优先使用;
? 分词短语如果前后都有名词,可能会产生歧义:特别留意处于中间位置的分词插入语;
? Unlike human beings, wasting away when going without food, bears exist… 这里的现在分词既可能修饰前面的human being做定语, 也可能修饰整个句子的主语bears做状语,有歧义。
动作的目的用do sth to do,而不用do sth for doing.

Last, next等最高级做前置定语时,后面的 定语必须用不定式。The last student to arrive at the classroom

平行结构

平行结构,即GMAT要求在句子中平行的结构可以保持语法上的一致性。
常见的平行结构的标志词通常为涉及连接和比较的词:And,or,but,as well as, not only but also, from to, neither nor, as, to be..., into... compare... more than... less than... instead of...

  1. 从句的并列:这个是常见考点,第二个从句也要加关系代词,否则,第二个句子可以单独成句,产生歧义。 例如 I want to retire to a place where I can relax and I can pay low taxes. 这里要加where.
  2. 多个And:在有多个and的句子时,要辨别清楚各个结构的逻辑高低关系 例如She argues the agency acts with disregard for human life and property and reckless abandon and that it should therefore be shut down.
    正确的句子应该是She argues the agency acts with reckless abandon and disregard for human life and property, and that it should therefore be shut down.
  3. 平行结构的第一步是判断语义上是否真的平行,而不应该盲目套用。例如She applied herself in new job, arriving early every day, skipping lunch regularly, and leaving late every night.
  4. 省略规则:在不引起歧义的情况下,完全重复的部分是可以省略的(举例)
  5. 不定式与不定式的并列,第一个to不可以省略,后面可以省略;
  6. Be likely to do… and unable to do… 这里unable 前面的be不可以省略。
  7. 并列结构的动词形式和时态都需要保持一致. 如will not only do sth. But also do sth.
  8. Be动词与实意动词在形式上是不平行的,不可以接受。
  9. Not do… but rather/but do… 这是比较隐蔽的平行结构,特别是not… but…
  10. And, Or, But 对于平行的要求并不是十分严格。 To see you and because I bought a new car, I drove to New York. 这里实际上是To see you, I drove to NY; and because I bought a new car, I drove to NY. 的省略。
  11. 系动词的两边也应该尽量保持平行。The way to help people is to give the poor money.如The bouquet of flowers is the giving of love. 这里giving 要改成gift. 这个是常忽略的点。
  12. 只有功能相同的定语从句才可以并列,that… and that…, in which … and in which…, where.. and where, whose可以与who并列,因为都是主语性定语从句。
  13. 三个事物并列,第三个事物前面必须要有and.

比较结构

  1. 当一个事物与他所属的类比较时,必须用any other 把它自身排除在从属范围之外。
  2. Like/Unlike/In contrast to/As:
    a. Like/Unlike/In contrast to的用法一模一样,后面只能跟名词,如果放在句首,则比较的对象是后面的主语;如果放在句中,则比较的对象是前面的名词。
    b. Like不可以用来举例。
    c. As后面如果跟名词,表示作为的意思,不是比较。As后面可以跟从句。
  3. 主语比较的时候的动词是否需要补出。:
    ? #1 对于主谓宾全或者主谓+介宾短语的句子的主语比较,谓语动词必须补出,其主要目地是为了和宾语比较区分开来,防止歧义。
    ? #2 对于主系表或者主谓+其他非名词性结构修饰成分的句子的主语比较,由于谓语动词之后不存在名词性结构造成歧义,谓语动词省略。
  4. 省略原则:
    a. 当从句Be动词与主句相同,可以省略也可以不省略;
    b. 当从句情态动词或助动词与主句相同,情态动词或助动词后的动词必须省略;
    c. 如果主语和谓语都相同, 可以全部省略,只保留状语。
    d. 比较从句的主语与主句主语相同,可以省略。
  5. 比较从句的情态动词与主句不一定要一致。如I eat more than he can. 时态也不一定要一致,例如Never before has taxpayers confronted as many changes at once as they confronted in the Tax Reform Act of 1986.
    Tiny quantities of more than 30 rare gases threaten to warm the Earth’s atmosphere even more rapidly over the next fifty years than carbon dioxide will.
  6. 倍数的表达:
    a. Twice/3 times as +adj/adv as… 或者+ the + 名词; 或者+ what从句
    b. Percent + more likely to do than to do sth.
    c. Double, triple, quadruple 等,不可以语as共用
  7. 比较级:只有在than出现时才可以使用。如With winter coming, I will have higher energy bills是错的。I will have higher energy bills over last year. 这里也是错的,over不可以取代than.
  8. At least as great as… = as great as or greater than…
  9. More than:(3 times as…as… 的用法一模一样)
    a. People in China are taller than people in Japan.
    b. People in China are taller than in Japan.
    c. People in China are taller than Japan.
    d. Gas prices were higher in 2012 than those in 2011.
    e. Gas prices were higher in 2012 than in 2011.
    f. Gas prices in 2012 were higher than those in 2011.
    先看than后面的词是否可比,如第三句Japan是国家,不是可比对象,所以错。再看than后面的结构在前面是否可以找到相同的结构,第4句those in 2011在than前面找不到相对应的结构,所以错。
  10. A large rise makes the construction industry’s economic health much more robust than it was 5 years ago. 这里在than左边没有be动词,it指代the construction industry’s economic health,因此比较的对象是不同年代的名词。对这种结构要特别注意。
  11. 比预期的表达方法 than expected, than sb. expected, than sb. had expected.
  12. As + adj. + noun. + as… Exercising is as good a way as any to lose weight.
  13. More because… than because…更多的因为,而不是因为….
  14. Verb. + more/less of + 名词,more/less of表示程度,实际上修饰的是前面的动词。I will see less of you.
  15. Similar to放在句首永远错。
  16. (just) As sb. do…, (so) + sb. do…. ; 如果so too,后面要倒装。

Modifiers修饰语

  1. 两个形容词/副词加形容词,前者两个形容词都是形容后面的名词,而后者第一个副词是形容第二个形容词的,要按照语义进行区分。Mike's grandfather is his supposed Irish ancestor. 这里,爷爷是祖先是确定的事情,因此supposed 不可以形容祖先,只能形容Irish,因此要把supposed改成supposedly.
  2. A noun's modifier must touch the noun closely. 对于一个名词来说,其修饰语必须紧挨着被修饰名词,不然容易引起歧义。Jim biked a long an old dirt road to get to his house, which cut through the woods. 这里cut through the woods按语义应该是用来形容马路,而不是房子,所以应该改变位置。
  3. A dangling modifier 无明确对象修饰语,此考点与代词的先行词必须存在类似,修饰语也必须有修饰的对象。 ? Resigned to the bad news, there was no commotion in the office. Resigned to the bad news这个是修饰语,应该修饰的员工,但是句子中并没有员工。应改成Resigned to the bad news, the office workers made no commotion. ? Using the latest technology, the problem was identified. 这里Using the latest technology用来修饰的应该是技术人员,而不是问题。
  4. 多个并列修饰语,要注意第二个第三个修饰语是否修饰对象上有歧义,因为他们不紧挨被修饰语。 George Carlin, both shocking and entertaining audiences across the nation, who also struggled publicly with drug abuse, influenced and inspired a generation. 第二个修饰的从句可能用来修饰audiences,有歧义。应该把第一个修饰语前置。
  5. 所有格考点,与代词类似,修饰语修饰的是所有格后面的所有的东西,而不是那个所有的人。
  6. That引导的从句不可以用来形容人; 但是whose引导的从句既可以形容人,也可以形容物;
  7. 先行词做从句宾语时,必须用whom,不能用who,whom/that都可以省略;但是,如果先行词做从句的逻辑主语,that 和 who不能省略。
  8. where 只能用来形容真正意义上的地点,而修辞意义上的,如condition, situation, case, agreement等,不可以。 We had an agreement where we cooked and he cleaned. 这里where 要改成in which.
  9. Essential modifiers & Non-essential modifiers限定性定语和非限定性定语 前者用that 引导,没有逗号;后者用which引导,有逗号。判定的标准是,如果用限定性定语,必然要存在于限定性定语所形容的先行词相对应的先行词。
  10. Which引导的从句只能用来形容紧挨的名词,而不能形容前面整个主句。 最好的方式是用现在分词来代替。Crime has decreased in our neighborhood, which has led to a rise in property values. 可以改成leading to a rise in property values.
  11. 状语从句的省略:
  12. 表示时间,条件,转折的连词 (when, while, if ,although, even) + 形容词短语/现在分词短语/过去分词短语,但是,不可以加介词短语或名词。例外:once可以,whatever后面可以加名词短语。
  13. A of B, which.. 可能修饰A也可能修饰B,不是一棒子打死的,有时可以通过后面的动词的单复数避免歧义,从而实现跳跃修饰。
  14. 关系代词充当介词宾语时,常见于定语从句,介词需要提前。即against which fight, 而不是which fight against.
  15. one of + 复数名词+that 定语从句,定语从句修饰复数名词; the only one/the one of… that… 这里从句修饰 the only one, 单数;
  16. And并列一般是就近并列,不能跳跃并列。如application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation. 这里and并列了commercial fertilizer 和irrigation,要避免就把irrigation放在and前面; 或者定语的主谓一致,which were,表明不可能修饰application.

Pronouns 代词

  1. 代词的考点在于与先行词,即代词指代的那个词的一致性:
    o 首先先行词必须以名词的形式存在;
    The park rangers discussed measures to prevent severe wildfires, which would be devastating to it. 这里的it从句意上应该指代公园,但是公园在这个句子里是名词定语,而不是一个名词。 o 先行词与代词要词义相符合,特别注意 is和refer to的区别。
    Although the term "supercomputer" may sound exaggerated, it is simply an extremely fast mainframe. 这里的it指代一个术语,而不是supercomputer,从字面意思上不是很妥当,可以将is 改成refer to。
    o 先行词和代词在单复数上要一致。
  2. Demonstrative Pronouns 指示代词
    o 不要用this/these单独指示某个先行词,Her products are unusual, many consider these unique. 这里要把these 改成them.
    o That/those指代的是先行词的一个new copy,必须后面有定语修饰,来区别于先行词。China's population is bigger than that of Japan's。同时that/those指代的先行词不包括先行词的修饰语。
    o It/Them等,指代的是原来的先行词。The money spent by her parents is more than it is expected to be. 这里it不能用that, 因为指代的原先行词,而不是new copy. 同时it/them指代的先行词包括其修饰语。Gas prices in 2012 were higher than those in 2011. 正确。Gas prices in 2012 were higher than they had been in 2011. 错误,因为they 指代的是整个Gas prices in 2012, 包括修饰语。
  3. Pronoun Ambiguity避免歧义。
    o 即要尽量避免前面有很多可能的先行词的情况,一般来说,主句的主语是第一先行词候选。
    o 特别要注意所有格。The board is investigating several executives' packages in order to determine how much may have been improperly awarded to them. 这里them不能指代所有格的several executives.
  4. 同样一句话中,相同的代词必须指代相同的事物,them/their/they都是相同的代词,指代的对象也要一样;It在句首做形式主语,后面的it不能指代同一主体。
  5. 特别留意伴随with…等状语中的代词,其首选指代对象是整个句子的主语。

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原文引自:
https://forum.chasedream.com/thread-1274593-1-1.html

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