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一个句意观念破解GMAT语法「跳跃修饰」

[日期:2016-03-25] 来源:ChaseDream论坛 作者:danyuchn [字体: ]

在研读SC的时候,大家最常问的其中一个问题就是: 关代子句何时能跳?何时不能跳?

也就是N1 + prep. + N2 +关代子句,到底要抓N1 还是N2的问题。

网络上流传着各种不同的判断准则,莫衷一是: 有人说非限定可跳限定不能的、有人说which可以that不能的、有人说中间隔的介系词词组太长不能的...... (太长的定义是什么?只能凭感觉吧)

在这里,我有一个明确的判断准则。

先说一下我的结论: 我认为「跳跃」两字是误导,修饰语根本不是跳跃。 原因将会在稍后叙明。

先举官方题目的两个有跳跃修饰的正确句子为例:

  1. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone.
  2. Barbara Jordan did not become a nationally recognized figure until 1974, when she participated in the hearings on the impeachment of President Richard Nixon, which were televised nationwide.

前面所讲的传言不攻自破。
1是限定、2是非限定
1是that、2是which
1是跳过一个介系词词组,2却是跳过长长的两个介系词修饰the hearings

所以,我们势必得重建观念。

其实,所谓的「跳跃修饰」,应该正名为「包覆修饰」。让我们来帮刚刚两个句子重新标示:

1.Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone.

此处a tool for private conversation在句意上可以被视做一个单一概念的名词,for private conversation被当做形容词词组「作为私人沟通之用的」。因此,a tool for private conversation在句意上可以被视做是一个加上形容词的名词:「作为私人沟通之用的」+「工具」=「作为私人沟通之用的工具」

that could substitute for the telephone.的关代子句 是把作为修饰语的介系词词组跟名词「包覆」在一起,视为一个单一概念的大名词来修饰。

只是因为a tool for private conversation这个大名词的核心成分始终是a tool
所以我们才误以为关代跳过for private conversation不理,只去修饰a tool。

事实上,关代子句的正确还原应为: a tool for private conversation could substitute for the telephone. 而非 a tool could substitute for the telephone.

2.Barbara Jordan did not become a nationally recognized figure until 1974, when she participated in the hearings on the impeachment of President Richard Nixon, which were televised nationwide.

同理,which并非跳过President Richard Nixon跟impeachment, 而是把the hearings on the impeachment of President Richard Nixon「包覆」视为完整概念的大名词:「尼克松总统弹劾听证会」

只是因为核心成分是the hearings,所以我们才一直误以为中间的介系词词组被跳过了。

关代子句的正确还原应为: the hearings on the impeachment of President Richard Nixon were televised nationwide. 而非 the hearings were televised nationwide.

那大家一定会问,有没有不能跳过的情况?

The machine wrote the letter with a pen, which....

这里的which绝对不可能跳过with a pen这个介系词短语, 因为句意上"the letter with a pen"是不可能被包覆成为单一概念的名词的。

当然,更不能跳过动词wrote,修饰主词machine。

结论:
跳跃修饰,其实就是「包覆修饰」。
若「N1 + prep. + N2 +关代子句」中的「N1+ prep. + N2 」可以被视做单一概念的名词
(换言之,prep. N2是拿来修饰N1)则可以包覆起来视为一个大名词, 修饰大名词的核心成分N1(也就是大家常讲的跳过去修饰N1)。

若是无法视作单一概念的名词,则绝不能跳过。

Dustin

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原文引自:
https://forum.chasedream.com/thread-1251311-1-1.html

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