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【800分大牛倾力奉献】一些语法总结(终于写完了,算对大家有个交待

[日期:2005-06-14] 来源:ChaseDream论坛 作者:tonyadidas [字体: ]

--  作者:tonyadidas

--  发布时间:2005-5-30 13:44:00

--  一些语法总结(终于写完了,算对大家有个交待)

承蒙朋友们错爱,我在把笔记本上的语法总结录成文本。但是在很难写,因为我是记录在每一天的复习日志里的,汇总起来好像不太容易。我早上起来试着写了一些。大家看看行不行。我的总结参考了黄金规则,珠江老师的笔记,og解释,大全注释等,我复习时只是摘抄和总结,所以我没什么贡献的。(再次感谢珠江老师!!)

我的一些语法总结:

一.   所谓的原则:

1.  定语从句尽量省略原则:which be/that be+形容词/过去分词,which be/that be应尽量省略。

2.  whose/which/that就近指代原则。

3.  There be/enough/instead of(相对于rather than)/due to/because of(相对于because)/despite/if(相对于whether)/maybe出现错原则。

4.  表‘命令/建议/要求’的实意动词+that后面省略should原则(这些实意动词已包含了should的意思,所以省略should)

5.  状语从句尽量省略主语+be动词原则。(注意逻辑主语一致)状语从句引导次后接adj/done/doing正确,接n/prep短语错。

6.  宾语从句that保留原则。注意平行结构中‘三个that’的平行。

7.  强语气词(only, only if,情态动词,however/whatever/whenever/wherever)不改变原则。

8.  Have+动作性名次错原则。改为do或者be adv done。

9.  Be to do表将来时错原则

10.Having/being出现错原则。(having的特例,credit后面用having;being的特例,the chance of being/the distinction of being)。

11.Consider +n1+ n2/adj出现正确原则。

12.Compare/base用被动原则。

13.Similar to/differ from不位于句首原则

14.Continue不用进行时原则。

15.if/when/because三种关系强加/丢失错原则。

二.平行结构。

1.       引起平行的结构:

a.       and, or, but, yet

b.       not only A, but also B/not A, but B/

c.       rather than

d.       can do, do, and do/to do, do, and do/that A, that B, and that C

e.       比较结构

2.       平行的原则:形势对称,概念对等,功能相同。

a.       单复数的一致。

b.       时态的一致

c.       主被动的一致

d.       主谓宾顺序的一致

e.       介词结构的一致

二.   比较结构

1.       引起比较的结构

a. like/unlike:be like/be unlike/do like对,do unlike错。Like/unlike+句子或介词短语错。

b.as后接句子及其省略形式(省略不引起歧义的主语)

c.as…as

d.比较级+than

e. compare to/with

f. the more, the more的结构

2.       比较的原则

a. 数的一致

b.概念对等(常考人名与所有格等逻辑意思上不可比的两个概念)

c.比较时必须将自己排除在外:any+n改为and other+n

d.倍数表达法twice as many as/twice the n/twice what/sth double(出现即正确)/sth be doubled(被动不好)

e. than 后面尽量补足助动词(因为介词也可省略,若不补足助动词,或引起歧义)

f. 状语与非状语不具可比性。

g.A至少等于B的表达:at least as more as/as more as, if not more so/as more as, or more than.as more as, and even more than(两个as必须全,有more必有than)

三.   主谓一致

1.       解题思想:分析句子结构,找出主谓宾,主句的主谓一致,从句的主谓一致分开考虑。抛弃所有修饰成分思考。

2.       需要注意的结构:

a. one of 名词复数 +that+ 谓语复数/the one of 名词复数+that 谓语单数

b.n1 of n2 that 谓语的单复数由that修饰的对象决定

c.倒装结构,由谓语后的名词形成分分析谓语单复数。

d.复合主语:数主语有几个a, the, that,大于二则谓语用复数。

e. each作代词:each of n+谓语单数。Each作副词:名词复数+each+谓语复数。

f. 物质名词和学科名词后接谓语单数

g.百分比结构 1 percent 0f 名词,由名词的单复数决定谓语的单复数

h.a body of/an array of/a series of/a collection of/ a set of /the number of +n/ns +谓语单数

i.  a number of/numbers of 名词复数+谓语复数

j.  one in/out of 名词复数+谓语单数

k.two out/in of 名词复数+谓语复数

四。句子的时态。

1。关于时态的一些原则

a.时态尽量简单(一般过去,一般现在,一般将来,一般进行,复杂的时态如:过去将来完成时等都算错。having/being错误标志,但有特例。credit+having,the chance of being, the distinction of being.而且这些特例出现就选)

b.不能毫无根据改变句子时态。

c.主从举时态关系:主将从将错,主过完从过完错,主现完从现完对,主将从现对,主过从过完对(新东方朱江老师的口诀)

2。时态的判断

a.since(完成时),originally(过去时),generally,the most common(现在时),表持续时间的时间状语(完成时)

b。表真理及普遍规律用现在是。(根据经验,这一点只有一种情况:sb said后接一般现在时。)

五.独立主格结构

1。标准形式:a.svo, n +doing/done/adj/prep/n(ets的preference,因为的确简洁)                     

                       b.svo,with/without +  n +doing/done/adj/prep/n

                       (不得不谈的with,作为正确选项概率很小,因为会有修饰歧义,不只是修饰最近的名词性成份还是主句主语,很多有争议的GWD都是从这里来的。个人意见:多半是错的,别对with有好感)

                       c.svo, each+doing/done/adj/prep/n(ets的preference)

六.虚拟语气。

1.可能引起虚拟的结构:a.表命令/建议/要求(demand/suggest/advvise/mandate/order/propose/advocate.recommend/decree),且should必须省略。

b.it is important that (这个结构可以虚拟,og上有例子)

2.不得不说的几个问题:a.考察虚拟语气,可以直接找be,因为是动词原型。一般都这么出。因为be动词的圆形与其他形式区别最大。

b.require of sb that/require sb to do/it is required of sb to do sth(require唯一的三种正确形式)

c.suggest可以后接doing,这个时候要注意平行问题,而不再是考察虚拟。

d.demand sb to do sth是错误表达。og 上cocacola那道题是最好的例证。

e.顺便提一下‘禁止’:gmat里只有两种表达:prohibit sb from doing/ forbid sb to do

  不能互换。

七.逻辑主语。

1.这个考点只需要注意一个问题,什么时候去思考是否有逻辑主语的问题?

标志性结构:a.doing, svo.

                     b.prep +doing/done, svo

                     c.adj, svo

                     d, conjunction +doing/done, svo.

                     e,doing/done放在主从句之间,一定错!(主义是主从句,不是主谓之间。这个考点一定会被拍砖,非常欢迎大家拍,好好拍,一定要弄清楚那道一年了没有结论的题)逻辑主语是最重要亦是最有效的考点,一定要注意!

八.代词。

1.代词遵循规则:

a.that只能指代单数名词

b.指代唯一:同一句话里,所有的that都指代统一对象,所有的it也是。

(tip,若前句用的是所有格形式,后句的代词若想指代前句的所有者,是绝对错的)

c.主句在前从句在后,只有从句可以用代词。从句在前主句在后,谁用代词都可以。

d.任何代词不能指代句子,改为so.(高频考点!)

e.this/that/those/these不能单独作主语。

f.such as +代词是错误的。

2。错误代词的修改:a。用一个名词指代 (正确选项标志)

                                 b.改为现在分词的伴随状态。

3。关于就近指代    

1.   which在从句中的作用。a.prep+which 后接完整句。b.which后接不完整句,which在从句中要做成分。c.百分比结构,如10% of which整个作名词性结构。

2. 2。which的指代。这一点太烦了。首先,比较传统的理解是这样的结构(介词为of):1.A of B which. 2. A of B, which(区别在于有无comma),前者只能就近指代,(诚然,由题目违反了这一点);后者可以越前指代,但也不一定越前指代。其次,如果介词不是of,能越前指代吗?其实,很多的语法争端都是从这里开始的,也很难平息。但是,有几点是可以肯定地,1.A of B which显然是不好的结构,应该改为that(可以用word试试,office认为这是语法错误).2.就近指代是主流。因为从阅读的角度来讲,越前指代会造成理解的困难,而og是最不喜欢任何造成理解困难的用法的。3.逻辑意思决定which后的谓语单复数。所以,把which可能引起的指代作为相对错也许比较合理。(当然,我现在脑海里都浮现出很多范例了。比如a group of birds that……那道题。)对了对了,还要注意 body of/an array of/a series of/a collection of/ a set of /the number of +n/ns +谓语单数这些特殊用法。

九.关于redundancy的总结

1.          amount to a sum

2.       annual and a year

3.       after when

4.       substitute and in place of

5.       once in every [number] [time]

6.       both A as well as B

7.       regain and again

8.       soar and rise and increase

9.       increase/decrease and up to/down to

10.   opposition and against

11.   be able to/ability and afford

12.   can and capability

13.   now and currently

14.   can and potentially(can, potentially,…is right)

15.   consequence and result

16.   may and likely

17.   that of his own

18.   return back

19.   although and may

20.   use as and borrow against

21.   also and like/as

22.   share the same

23.   withhold disclosure

24.   no less than/nothing other than(在完全美有比较的情况下赤裸裸的出现在名次前)

25.   pay and payment

26.   reason and because

十.关于Set Phrase的总结

1.        be believed to be

2.       be estimated to be

3.       distinguish between A and B/ distinguish A from B

4.       rates for(when ‘rates’ means prices charge)

5.       the cost to sb of doing sth; cost sb sth in sth

6.       attribute A to B; B is attributed to A

7.       in the coming moth

8.       admit that SVO/admit to sth

9.       introduce into

10.   in an attempt to

11.   known to do sth/known to be sth/known as sth;/known for sth

12.   the extent to which

13.   be necessary to do/the necessity of doing/sth

14.   consider n1 n2

15.   in danger of

16.   cite A as an instance of B; for instance

17.   all things adj/all the adj things

18.   credit[v] sb with having done/the credit[n] to sb for having done

19.   substitute A for B

20.   be expected to

21.   both A and B

22.   demand that s v o; [‘demand s to do’ is wrong.]

23.   mistake A for B.

24.   all of which [can not be ‘of which all’]

25.   at a time when/ the year that/the period when/ an age in which

26.   A is the reason why

27.   threaten to do

28.   allow sth to be done/sb to do sth

29.   be responsible to sb/for doing sth/sth

30.   forbid sth/doing sth; prohibit sb from doing sth

31.   depict sth as sth/ as if SVO

32.   contribute to sth/doing sth

33.   the use of sth to do sth

34.   the same as/that[用as与用that意思不同]

35.   be capable of doing sth/the capability of doing sth/be able to do sth/the ability to do sth/the possibility of doning

36.   [be capable of being done/be able/unable to be done] are wrong!!

37.   effort to do sth

38.   think of A as B

39.   ‘,’ +who; prep+whom

40.   supply for sth

41.   it is hoped that

42.   just as SVO, so SVO

43.   the rivalry between A and B; rival A and B;A rival B for sth.

44.   help to do/help do; be helpful in doing

45.   sth prove adj

46.   the necessity of sth

47.   break with sb in sth

48.   dispute over sth

49.   on comparison of A with B

50.   on condition that +subjunctive mood or past tense

51.   be native to

52.   in contrast with/to

53.   with the intention of doing

54.   the importance of sth/doing sth 

55.   plan to do/on doing

56.   whatever sth(v is unnecessary and can be omit)

57.   the proposal to do/propose to do

58.   allocate sth to sb/sth for sth/sth sth.

59.   aid in doing sth/with the aid of sb/in aid of sth/aid to do

60.   use sth as/to do sth

61.   at speed

62.   date back to/date from sth/ the date of

63.   connection between A and B

64.   the consequence of

65.   if only because[这里only不是强语气词]

66.   increase between A and B; increase of A to B

67.   A and B alike

68.   suggest A as B

69.   distinction of being doing

70.   aim at/to do

71.   go unnoticed

72.   a method of doing sth/to do

73.   the chance of doing

74.   said that +V[用一般现在是哦]

75.   damage to sth/damage sth

76.   at a disvantage

77.   be/have/give grounds for

78.   does more than do

79.   alliance and treaties[必须一起出现]

80.   even as = just as

81.   have difficult in

82.   restitution for

83.   reversion to sth

84.   carry on as [position]

85.   take sb sth to do sth

86.   target at

87.   share sth with sb

88.   that is[表示那就是说,不能用which means]

89.   make do without

90.   A is to B what C is to D

91.   the reason [why](可省略,虽然og说不能但她自己都省过)SVO

92.   it is important that A be[subjunctive mood] B

93.   on surface; at pole/line

94.   each…the other…

95.   be intended on/up (doing) sth

96.   impact on/upon

97.   diminish[不能用impede] the possibility of doing sth

98.   call sth to consider

99.   recoup sth/recoup sb for sth

100.  A be done that

101.  looking to sb to do sth

102.  make up for

103.  At the invitation of sb[在某人的邀请之下]

104.  skill in/at doing sth

105.  namely that SVO

106.  One A for every Bs

107.  SVO at once[at once的位置]

108.  S V1 O1, then V2 O2

109.  reversion to + n

终于大体上写完了,还有很多细节。我会不断增补。毕竟翻88天的日志真得满苦闷的。希望大家按照这样的结构能很好地总结出自己的一套应对sc的方案。我算是抛砖吧。一定会有不严谨的地方,还望各位前辈多批评指正。 


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原文引自:
https://forum.chasedream.com/dispbbs.asp?boardid=23&id=113287

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